Psychodynamic and psychoanalytic perspective

Adults who do not experience guilt and shame, and who indulge in criminal behavior, are usually diagnosed as psychopaths, or, using DSM-IV-TRantisocial personality disorder. Bowlby's inspiration came from reading the work of Konrad Lorenzthe famous Nobel Prize—winning founder of the field of ethology or animal behaviour.

Examples of Psychodynamic Perspective

Humberto Nagera has been particularly helpful in clarifying many of the complexities of the child through these years. Later, Freud came to believe that, although child abuse occurs, neurotic symptoms were not associated with this.

Psychodynamic Approach

Unconscious processes influence our behavior as the psychodynamic perspective predicts. Psychoanalytic ideas also play roles in some types of literary analysis such as Archetypal literary criticism.

As the "autonomous ego functions" theory is only a theory, it may yet be proven incorrect. Analysts can also use reconstruction to estimate what may have happened in the past that created some current issue. The drives behind behavior are a the lift instinct and sex drive and b death instinct and aggressive drive.

In depressions with psychotic features, the self-preservation function may also be damaged sometimes by overwhelming depressive affect.

Still using an energic system, Freud characterized the difference between energy directed at the self versus energy directed at others, called cathexis. For example, a patient may have an hysterical amnesia memory being an autonomous function because of intrapsychic conflict wishing not to remember because it is too painful.


Global therapies stand in contrast to approaches which focus mainly on a reduction of symptoms, such as cognitive and behavioral approaches, so-called problem-based therapies. Anxiety disorders such as phobias, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are obvious areas where psychoanalysis might be assumed to work.

Another ego defense is denial.

Psychoanalytic Theory & Approaches

For example, in season three of the television series Madmen, one of the female leads is romantically drawn to a significantly older man just after her father dies. Childhood origins[ edit ] Freudian theories hold that adult problems can be traced to unresolved conflicts from certain phases of childhood and adolescencecaused by fantasy, stemming from their own drives.

Many psychoanalysts believe that the human experience can be best accounted for by an integration of these perspectives. The id, ego, and super-ego make up personalty. The person wishing to start an analysis must have some capacity for speech and communication.

Synthetic functions, in contrast to autonomous functions, arise from the development of the ego and serve the purpose of managing conflict processes.

The aim is to assist the client in coming to terms with their own id impulses or to recognize the origin of their current anxiety in childhood relationships that are being relived in adulthood.

He found the stage from about three to six years of age preschool years, today called the "first genital stage" to be filled with fantasies of having romantic relationships with both parents. These attachments involve fantasies of sexual relationships with either or both parent, and, therefore, competitive fantasies toward either or both parents.


Childhood experiences greatly affect emotions and behavior as adults. Psychodynamic theory is strongly determinist as it views our behavior as caused entirely by unconscious factors over which we have no control. Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis. Fonagy and Target, in London, have propounded their view of the necessity of helping certain detached, isolated patients, develop the capacity for "mentalization" associated with thinking about relationships and themselves.

Adaptational psychological phenomena as it relates to the external world. Freud and his colleagues came to Massachusetts in to lecture on their new methods of understanding mental illness.Psychodynamic therapy is a “global therapy”, or form of therapy with a focus on a holistic perspective of the client.

The alternative, “problem-based” therapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, aim to reduce or eliminate symptoms instead of exploring the client’s deep. Psychoanalysis (along with Rogerian humanistic counseling) is an example of a global therapy (Comer,p. ) which has the aim of helping clients to bring about a major change in their whole perspective on Saul Mcleod.

Psychodynamics, also known as psychodynamic psychology, in its broadest sense, is an approach to psychology that emphasizes systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, feelings, and emotions and how they might relate to early experience.

For example, studies of psychodynamic therapy for PTSD have shown that after therapy, people report improvement in their interpersonal relationships, fewer feelings of hostility and inadequacy, more confidence and assertiveness and reductions in PTSD symptoms and depression.

Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective. Learning Objectives. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the assumptions of the psychodynamic perspective on personality development; Define and describe the nature and function of the id, ego, and superego.

The Psychodynamic Perspective

Psychoanalytic Theory & Approaches History of American Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalysis became established in America between World War I and World War II, when Americans traveled to Europe to take advantage of psychoanalytic training opportunities there.

Psychodynamic and psychoanalytic perspective
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